The human knee joint is prone to injure and complex due to its ligaments, cartilage and the two menisci. Severe injuries, minor accidents or wear and tear can cause strong pain and further symptoms reducing the quality of life.
Knee pain can have various causes from muscle tension, strains or tears, damage of ligaments, tendons, cartilage or bone up to spinal diseases and nerve damage.
Causes in need of treatment are, for example:
The following spinal diseases can also generate knee pain:
Pain can be superficial, within the knee, spread into legs and feet and can be characterized subject to the injury as continuous pain, movement pain or pressure pain. These pain types may entail restricted range of motion, knee instability, but also paresthesia or numbness in case of nerve damage.
Because knee pain can have many causes, it is crucial to carry out a comprehensive neurological-orthopedic examination comprising a talk about the history of illness, a thorough examination and further investigation by means of imaging procedures like MRI or X-raying.
The best method to differentiate between different injuries is MRI. MRI enables us to visualize very different structures during one examination like muscles, ligaments, tendons, cartilage and bones. If it is necessary, we do also apply a well-tolerated contrast agent to improve the visibility of certain structures.
In some cases, it may be necessary to perform a knee arthroscopy, during which an endoscope is inserted through small incisions to visualize the different structures of the knee enlarged. If indicated, a subsequentarthroscopic surgery is possible directly after the examination.
Treatment of knee pain is subject to the knee injury. The therapeutic range encompasses painkilling and anti-inflammatory drugs, immobilization, physiotherapy and strengthening of muscles, corticoid injections, but also arthroscopic surgery of the knee or knee replacement surgery, or microscopic and endoscopic surgery of the spine in case of spinal diseases.
Please do also study the possible causes of knee pain in order to find more information on the corresponding treatments: