The ankle is a “hinged” joint capable of moving the foot in two primary directions: away from the body (plantar flexion) and toward the body (dorsiflexion). It is formed by the meeting of three bones. The end of the shinbone of the leg (tibia) and a small bone in the leg (fibula) meet a large bone in the foot, called the talus. Ligaments on each side of the ankle also provide stability by tightly strapping the outside of the ankle with the lateral collateral ligaments and the inner portion of the ankle with the medial collateral ligaments.
It is an inflammatory joint disease starting in the synovium and spreading to eventually destroy the joint cartilage. Some bone may also be involved. The disease also effects internal body organs and may involve other joints too.
Ankle sprains are one of the most common musculoskeletal injuries. Sprains are injuries to the ligaments of the ankle, causing them to partially or completely tear as a result of sudden stretching. They can occur on either or both of the inner and outer portions of the ankle joint. Ankle sprains more commonly happen when there is a preexisting muscle weakness in the ankle area or a history of previous ankle injuries. The typical injury occurs when the ankle is suddenly “twisted” in a sports activity or by stepping off an uneven surface.
Arthritis is a degenerative disease caused by either wear and tear of the cartilage (osteoarthritis) or an inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis) of one or more joints. Arthritis not only affects joints, but may also affect supporting structures such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments.